Your top 7 questions about an RRSP, answered
It’s almost RRSP season again! If your RRSP savings aren’t being invested automatically, you are probably thinking about contributing to your RRSP before the February 29 deadline. But maybe you have more questions before you contribute? That’s why we collected some of the top questions our financial advisers get about RRSP accounts.
Here’s a handy guide:
How much can you contribute to your RRSP in 2019?
For the 2019 tax year the RRSP limit is 18% of your 2019 gross income, or $26,500, whichever is less. Is that how much you should save? What if you can’t save that much? And what about your TFSA?
We can help answer those questions below. Want to use online tools and do it yourself? Check out the free tax calculator from TurboTax to see the taxes you might pay on your income and save by making an RRSP contribution.
How can saving in an RRSP reduce your taxes or get you a refund?
An RRSP is an account type designed to help Canadians save for retirement. It works very differently in the 3 stages of your financial planning life cycle: accumulation, income and estate.
During the accumulation stage, you can save a part of your gross income (before income taxes) and defer taxes on all investment income and gains. The contributions you make reduce your taxable income dollar-for-dollar. This means when you contribute to an RRSP using after-tax income, you will not have to pay income tax on that income!
Can you withdraw from your RRSP early if you need the money?
If you withdraw any funds from your RRSP during the accumulation stage, you will have to pay income tax on the amount. This applies just as if you earned that income from our job. Even worse, you will lose that RRSP contribution room.
There are two exceptions to this rule: withdrawing funds paying into the Home Buyers’ Plan (to help with down payment on your first home) and Lifelong Learning Plan (to help pay for post-secondary education).
How can you take money out for retirement with a RRIF?
The income stage starts when you retire and start to make income payments to yourself from your RRSP (usually after converting to a Registered Retirement Income Fund, or RRIF).
These income payments are taxed just like regular income (as are some of your other sources of income in this stage, like CPP, OAS and other retirement benefits).
Your RRSP must be converted to a RRIF by December 31st of the year you turn 71. A RRIF is also subject to minimum withdrawal requirements.
During the estate stage (after we pass on), RRSPs can roll-over to a spouse with no immediate tax consequences. Once your surviving spouse also passes on (or if you do not have a spouse), your entire RRSP (or RRIF) amount is treated as income to your estate.
For example, if someone dies with a $300,000 RRSP in Ontario without a spouse, their estate will have a tax liability of ~$124,366 or more due to the RRSP.
How should you optimize contributions to lower your taxes?
So, when you use an RRSP, it is important to consider how the RRSP works at each stage. That way, you won’t over-optimize for one stage only to fumble another. Remember:
- To maximize tax savings over your lifetime, make sure that your marginal tax rate when you contribute is higher than your average tax rate in retirement. OurTFSA/RRSP comparison calculator can help illustrate this.
- If you are in a lower tax bracket now and expect to be in a higher bracket later in your career, consider using a TFSA until you are in a higher tax bracket.
- To avoid significant RRSP taxes in your estate stage, only save enough in your RRSP to provide your lifestyle income until age 100 (at the latest). You want to minimize extra RRSP money at estate time.
- If you’ve saved too much in your RRSP in the accumulation stage and now your RRIF is providing more income than you need, you should save the extra money coming from your RRIF in a TFSA or non-registered account.
Keeping all of this in mind when planning your RRSP contributions will help you get the most out of your money. That way, you’ll pay the least taxes over your lifetime.
Should you contribute to your RRSP or TFSA?
You should contribute to an RRSP to cover your lifestyle needs until age 100. If you set a savings plan and work towards a retirement goal, you can keep the same lifestyle you have today.
However, you should use your TFSA when you’ve saved enough in your RRSP to cover your lifestyle needs in retirement, and for other savings goals.
Can I make RRSP contributions automatic?
The absolute best way to save is to automate deposits to your RRSP on a regular basis, lined up with your payroll. That way, as soon as money comes in, some goes out to savings. If you set up an automatic RRSP savings plan, you should file form T1213 with the CRA. Then the CRA will have your employer reduce the income tax coming off your pay so that you get your money back as soon as possible.
If you start making more money, you should make an adjustment to your savings to keep on track. This review is only needed every couple of years, or when you get a major salary increase.
What if you still need some help with RRSP investing?
Then we’re here for you! We provide free financial reviews with unlimited financial advice when you sign up with WealthBar.